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  • 1.7 Duty to avert a criminal offence | RVTS Guide for schools

    «To avert» is, in this case, to avert a possible future criminal offence; you are not obligated to report punishable offences already carried out. The duty to avert generally applies to situations where you know for sure – or think it highly probable – a person will commit sexual assault, seriously injure someone (including severe psychological abuse) or take another human’s life, according to the Penal Code Section 196. DUTY TO AVERT A CRIMINAL OFFENCE Listen to a read-aloud version of the text on this page 1.7 Duty to avert a criminal offence RVTS Mid 00:00 / 00:33 Previous Next Innholdsfortegnelse

  • 4.3 Creating a safety plan | RVTS Guide for schools

    CREATING A SAFETY PLAN Listen to a read-aloud version of the text on this page 4.3 Creating a safety plan RVTS Mid 00:00 / 00:34 Previous Next Innholdsfortegnelse Creating a safety plan not only when behaviour is harmful, but also when it is problematic, is often a good idea. It helps with thinking through possible scenarios, and working to prevent them. (See appendix 5 .) ​ Making the safety plan in cooperation with the child is encouraged, to clarify the adult is there to support them and provide assistance so that they do not commit unfortunate acts, and to be in agreement of what kind of supervision and assistance is needed, who does what, etc.

  • 6.7 Caring for the child or adolescent displaying harmful sexual behaviour | RVTS Guide for schools

    CARING FOR THE CHILD OR ADOLESCENT DISPLAYING HARMFUL SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR Children and young people who have displayed harmful sexual behaviour are in danger of being excluded by those around them and feeling self-hatred. They usually have a complicated and vulnerable past, and as equal a need as the victim to be cared for. They need reassuring adults who are interested in trying to understand the root of the behaviour, and who make it clear they want to help the child with their struggles. The correct way to speak depends on the age and function of the child. Keep them informed of what is happening. Illustration: Jens A. Larsen Aas Listen to a read-aloud version of the text on this page 6.7 Caring for the child or adolescent displaying harmful sexual behaviour RVTS Mid 00:00 / 00:36 Previous Next Innholdsfortegnelse

  • 1.2 Trygghet relasjon regulering | RVTS Guide for schools

    SAFETY, RELATIONS AND REGULATION Research into the needs of children and young people who have been exposed to hurtful experiences or grow up in unhealthy conditions, shows the importance of safety, positive relations, and assistance with regulating emotions, impulses and behaviours in order to promote growth, development and learning (Howard Bath, 2009). Do keep in mind that these three areas describe fundamental needs for all children, and create good classroom- and learning environments when implemented in school. Illustrasjon: Jens A. Larsen Aas 1. SAFETY Feeling safe is the most important thing in children’s lives. They need adults they can trust in their lives. Safe attachments provide protection and promote growth (Kvello, 2015). ​ What constitutes as “safe” differs between individuals and depends on prior experiences. Some pupils have reactional patterns that may seem irrational, overly dramatic, unpredictable and disrupting. Reactions like these can be understood as expressions of pain, and be rooted in emotions the pupils have yet to master. Expressions can be both outward (shouting, swearing, running away, etc.) and inward (acting passively, being quiet or rejecting, etc.). Increased safety can be achieved by having at least one adult who meets the child’s emotional needs; someone who supports the child, is understanding and helps regulate negative emotions. 2. RELATIONS All children and young people are in need of positive, long-lasting relations. The relation between teacher and pupil is imperative for pupils’ learning and well-being (Hattie, 2009), and has a big impact on emotional, cognitive and social development. ​ Relational competency in schools is about the staffs’ attitudes toward children and young people, and being conscious of your own behaviour and emotional expressions in the face of different pupils’ behaviour. Professional competency and relational competency complement each other and help you see every individual pupil’s needs, emotions and academic potential (Lund, 2017). 3. REGULATION AND CO-REGULATION Emotions are the driving forces behind our actions, and we need to look past those actions to understand what causes them. The child’s ability to self-regulate is shaped by the sensitivity they are shown by their caregiver(s) (Kvello, 2015). Children who are assisted with regulating hurtful or difficult emotions and verbalizing their experiences, are also being trained in how to self-regulate their emotions. ​ However, safety and positive relations are prerequisites to working with regulation of behaviour. ​ Many children have not learned how to comfort themselves and need adults who can “co-regulate” them when emotions become overwhelming. One of the most important aspects of this is to not exercise any of your power or control over the child, but rather be an attentive listener, accept frustrations and support the child’s self-regulation, and adjust when necessary. A lot of children find it helpful to stimulate their senses, either to calm down or to liven up, for instance by listening to calming or energetic music. LECTURER Kristin Larsen is a special education teacher at Lianvatnet school, a school department in BUP (Division of Mental Health Care, Department of Children and Youth). She has extensive experience with children and young people who display problematic behaviour in school. She has also worked as both principal and education inspector, and has further education with subjects from the master’s program “Children and young people’s mental health and child welfare” from NTNU. In addition to educating, assessing and evaluating she provides counselling and competency training for school employees. RESSURSER Book: Barn, vold og traumer. Møte med unge i utsatte livssituasjoner (Bok) Øverlien, C., Hauge, M. I., & Schultz, J. H. (Red.) (2016), Universitetsforlaget https://www.universitetsforlaget.no/barn-vold-og-traumer-1 Book: Folkehelse og livsmestring i skolen Ringereide og Thorkildsen, RVTS South, PEDLEX. https://www.pedlex.no/artikkel/flm19/folkehelse-og-livsmestring-i-skolen/ Listen to a read-aloud version of the text on this page 1.2 Saftey, relations and regulation RVTS Mid 00:00 / 00:39 Previous Next Innholdsfortegnelse The pupils we meet in school all have different pasts and experiences. Some have been raised in a safe and caring environment which stimulates healthy regulation and development, while others have not. Schools have an important task in this area; we are to ensure every child experiences a safe environment at school. Most children are safe, but not all of them have grown up in a safe and caring environment. Being exposed to hurtful experiences can also lead to skewed or delayed development. Carrying such burdens makes children vulnerable and affects their brain and ability to regulate. These children especially are in need of being seen, safe, and having a positive relation. Safety is the most important thing in a child’s life, and a meaningful and safe adult – a teacher, for instance – can greatly affect the future of the pupil. Safety is the foundation for all good relations, and this also applies to children. However, the pupils most in need of safety and a positive relation are often some of the most difficult to get close to. They can reject us, be in opposition, and wish to not be in contact with us. All teachers care about having good relations with pupils, but if the pupil is unregulated, physical, has outbursts, spits on us, insults us or violates others, working on that relation becomes exceedingly difficult, and takes a long time. I once had to spend six months building a relationship with a pupil before we felt safe around each other. But this is worth it, we have to be patient and endure opposition. Our task is to like every pupil. We have to turn the negative interplay around. The behaviour displayed by a pupil can evoke negative emotions in ourselves, and we need to be extremely aware of this. Building a relation and safe environment is perhaps especially important in regard to the pupils who violate others sexually. I am aware that schools have emphasized safety and relations for the last 20 years, and we might be tired of hearing about it, but when we are working with sexuality it is incredibly important to talk about. We can easily become uncertain, feel discomfort or disgust when we hear about pupils violating other pupils, but seeing past that behaviour is paramount. Safety and a relation are therefore prerequisites to aiding the pupil with their regulation. Kristin Larsen, Pedagog, Trondheim kommune. Show transcript Duration: 3:31

  • 5.3 Both boys and girls | RVTS Guide for schools

    BOTH BOYS AND GIRLS Boys commit the majority of sexually harmful acts, but girls also commit them. For some girls the problems are more hidden and taboo. Previous Next Innholdsfortegnelse Listen to a read-aloud version of the text on this page 5.3 Both boys and girls RVTS Mid 00:00 / 00:12

  • 2.6 Measures which promote healthy sexual development – part 1 | RVTS Guide for schools

    MEASURES WHICH PROMOTE HEALTHY SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT – PART 1 General classroom measures anchored in class leadership, social and emotional competency and sex education form an important basis for preventing problematic and harmful sexual behaviour. Therefore, the measures highly resonate with existing programs and focus areas in schools, and are based around teachers’ important role and position in the classroom. «Relations between pupils and teachers are important to develop social competence.» - VEILEDER UDIR, P. 26 Previous Next Innholdsfortegnelse «Make it possible to give the child/young person positive feedback and information.» - THE TRAFFIC LIGHT Listen to a read-aloud version of the text on this page 2.6 Measures wich promote healthy sexual development - part 1 RVTS Mid 00:00 / 00:28 1. GOOD CLASS LEADERSHIP Nordahl & co. (2005) present relation-oriented and proactive class leadership as important conditions to prevent unwanted behaviour. In addition, the relation between teacher and pupil is one of the factors most affecting learning outcomes (Hattie, 2009) as well as the pupil’s mental health (Drugli, 2011). The principles of relation-oriented and proactive class leadership make it possible for the teacher to be present for every pupil. ​ RELATION-ORIENTED CLASS LEADERSHIP Get to know the pupil as an individual Greet every pupil Use names Listen/acknowledge Physical touch (i.e. a tap on the shoulder) Eye contact Give praise and positive attention Show interest by asking about what they do in their spare time, hobbies, etc. Do nice things, e.g. play games Be humorous Share things about yourself (be a little private) NB! Spend time building a relation to parents/caregivers PROACTIVE CLASS LEADERSHIP Predictability The pupils are familiar with rules and routines The teacher praises positive effort and behaviour The leader of the class gives good, clear instructions Well-thought-out physical frameworks Well-thought-out structure and organizing ​ (Examples inspired by Webster-Stratton (2005) and Bergkastet & co. (2009)).

  • 2 - Questions | RVTS Guide for schools

    Write a short title If a 3-year-old is fiddling with their genitals, I view it as... A: Typical of their age-group Correct! In situations where others are bothered, have the child do another, more appropriate activity like drawing or playing with a ball. B: Atypical of their age-group, and tell the child to stop doing it Wrong. It is natural for a 3-year-old to fiddle with their own genitals, but in situations where others are bothered, have the child do another, more appropriate activity like drawing or playing with a ball. Children need to be taught boundaries, even for a natural sexual activity. C: Typical of their age-group, and the child should be able to do this unobstructed no matter the situation Wrong. It is natural for a 3-year-old to fiddle with their own genitals, but in situations where others are bothered, have the child do another, more appropriate activity like drawing or playing with a ball. Children need to be taught boundaries, even for a natural sexual activity. Avgitt svar A preschooler’s knowledge about body and sexuality is usually… A: Concrete and simple Correct! Preschoolers have a simple and concrete understanding of body and sexuality, like that girls and boys look different or that mothers give birth to babies and fathers help make them. B: Extensive and precocious Wrong. Preschoolers have a simple and concrete understanding of body and sexuality, like that girls and boys look different or that mothers give birth to babies and fathers help make them. A more reflected and mature understanding of their own body and sexuality is developed throughout the adolescent years. C: Reflected and modern Wrong. Preschoolers have a simple and concrete understanding of body and sexuality, like that girls and boys look different or that mothers give birth to babies and fathers help make them. A more reflected and mature understanding of their own body and sexuality is developed throughout the adolescent years. Avgitt svar Mark the answer you associate with healthy sexual playing A: Voluntary, spontaneous, can happen between all genders, characterized by curiosity, ends when one is tired of playing ​ B: Characterized by secrecy and discomfort, girls are mainly “just along for the ride” ​ C: Playing happens often and lasts for a while, is characterized by feelings of shame, anxiety, pain and compulsion ​ Avgitt svar The median age of girls having intercourse for the first time is… A: Age 16 It is age 17, meaning half of girls over the age of 17 have not had intercourse. B: Age 17 It is age 17, meaning half of girls over the age of 17 have not had intercourse. C: Age 18 It is age 17, meaning half of girls over the age of 17 have not had intercourse. Avgitt svar The median age of boys having intercourse for the first time is… A: Age 16.5 It is age 17.5, meaning half of boys over the age of 17 and a half have not had intercourse. B: Age 17.5 It is age 17.5, meaning half of boys over the age of 17 and a half have not had intercourse. C: Age 18.5 It is age 17.5, meaning half of boys over the age of 17 and a half have not had intercourse. Avgitt svar How many boys aged 13-14 report having seen porn on the internet? A: 10% Wrong, the correct number is 50%, and taken from the Children and media-study from 2020. B: 50% Wrong, the correct number is 50%, and taken from the Children and media-study from 2020. C: 80% Wrong, the correct number is 50%, and taken from the Children and media-study from 2020. Avgitt svar How many girls aged 13-14 report having seen porn on the internet? A: 10% Correct, the number is taken from the Children and media-study from 2020. B: 50% Wrong, the correct number is 10%, and taken from the Children and media-study from 2020. C: 80% Wrong, the correct number is 10%, and taken from the Children and media-study from 2020. Avgitt svar What genre do you think porn is first and foremost? A: Tragedy or comedy Wrong: We believe porn is entertainment, made first and foremost to get people sexually aroused. This makes porn unqualified to provide reliable information on what sexuality and sexual relations actually are. B: Entertainment Wrong: We believe porn is entertainment, made first and foremost to get people sexually aroused. This makes porn unqualified to provide reliable information on what sexuality and sexual relations actually are. C: Educational Wrong: We believe porn is entertainment, made first and foremost to get people sexually aroused. This makes porn unqualified to provide reliable information on what sexuality and sexual relations actually are. Avgitt svar What effect does masturbation have on preschoolers? A: It has a calming effect Correct: Masturbation usually has a calming effect on young children. As children grow up they will begin to feel more desire in relation to masturbation. B: It has an arousing effect Wrong: Masturbation usually has a calming effect on young children. As children grow up they will begin to feel more desire in relation to masturbation. C: Masturbation can lead to aggression in young children Wrong: Masturbation usually has a calming effect on young children. As children grow up they will begin to feel more desire in relation to masturbation. Avgitt svar When should you not worry about an adolescent masturbating? A: When they masturbate in inappropriate situations Wrong B: When they masturbate so that their genitals become sore At times adolescents masturbate both often and a lot, which makes it difficult to say what we definitively think is the correct amount. Therefore, we are the most concerned with whether the masturbation negatively impacts the adolescent’s normal life, like relations with family and friends, school and after-school activities. One also needs to see if the adolescent uses poor technique and becomes unnecessarily sore, or if there is coercion involved. There are some adolescents who masturbate in inappropriate situations and places, and these are important to address. C: When they masturbate 5 times a day At times adolescents masturbate both often and a lot, which makes it difficult to say what we definitively think is the correct amount. Therefore, we are the most concerned with whether the masturbation negatively impacts the adolescent’s normal life, like relations with family and friends, school and after-school activities. One also needs to see if the adolescent uses poor technique and becomes unnecessarily sore, or if there is coercion involved. There are some adolescents who masturbate in inappropriate situations and places, and these are important to address. Avgitt svar View More SUBJECT-RELATED QUESTIONS, CHAPTER 2 ABOUT THE QUESTIONS Here you have the opportunity to test yourself in the subject you just finished by answering 10 questions. The questions will indicate if your answers are correct or not, and provide a deeper explanation once you have answered. ​ You do not need to register, and no user data will be saved. You can answer the questions as many times as you would like. Begin Previous Next Innholdsfortegnelse

  • Temasporsmal

    If a 3-year-old is fiddling with their genitals, I view it as... ​ Chapter 2 - Question 1 of 10 Next Previous Next A: Typical of their age-group B: Atypical of their age-group, and tell the child to stop doing it C: Typical of their age-group, and the child should be able to do this unobstructed no matter the situation Correct! In situations where others are bothered, have the child do another, more appropriate activity like drawing or playing with a ball. Wrong. It is natural for a 3-year-old to fiddle with their own genitals, but in situations where others are bothered, have the child do another, more appropriate activity like drawing or playing with a ball. Children need to be taught boundaries, even for a natural sexual activity. Wrong. It is natural for a 3-year-old to fiddle with their own genitals, but in situations where others are bothered, have the child do another, more appropriate activity like drawing or playing with a ball. Children need to be taught boundaries, even for a natural sexual activity. Avgitt svar

  • Temasporsmal

    Why do some children commit sexual violations? ​ Chapter 6 - Question 1 of 9 Next Previous Next A: The reason children display harmful sexual behaviour is always mental or neurological issues. B: There can be many reasons why some children commit harmful sexual acts. C: Children displaying harmful sexual behaviour have themselves been abused Wrong. Correct! The reasons are often complex and multilayered. It can be the result of vulnerabilities, like having been exposed to trauma, neglect or other problems. It can also be surrounding influences (i.e. peer pressure, pornography, role models, their nurturing situation, etc.). Wrong. Avgitt svar

  • 3. Problematic sexual behaviour | RVTS Guide for schools

    3. PROBLEMATIC SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR Problematic or harmful sexual behaviour is what we consider unhealthy. This is behaviour with concerning intensity and frequency, or behaviour which does not correlate to the appropriate age- or developmental maturity. It can also be a discrepancy in dominance by one party behaving threateningly or attempting to coerce (by offering clothes or candy, for instance) the other party into joining sexual games. ​ In this chapter you will see a video lecture by Marita Sandvik on problematic sexual behaviour, a video lecture by Birgit Hegge on the Traffic Light as a tool of assistance, and a video lecture by Morten Jensås Lundgren on pornography. SIDER I DETTE KAPITTELET THE TRAFFIC LIGHT CAN HELP US DIFFERENTIATE – PART 1 THE TRAFFIC LIGHT CAN HELP US DIFFERENTIATE – PART 2 PORNOGRAPHY DUTY TO PROTECT EARLY EFFORTS PAY ATTENTION Previous Next Innholdsfortegnelse

  • 2.9 Measures which promote healthy sexual development – part 4 | RVTS Guide for schools

    MEASURES WHICH PROMOTE HEALTHY SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT – PART 4 Illustration: Jens A. Larsen Aas RESOURCES Book: Børn og seksualitet Stevnhøj & Strange, 2016 https://boernogseksualitet.digi.hansreitzel.dk/ Book: Barna og seksualiteten Aasland, 2018 https://www.cappelendamm.no/_barna-og-seksualiteten-margrete-wiede-aasland-9788202616649 Book: Med hjerte for seksualiteten Hegge, 2018 https://www.hertervigforlag.no/butikk/med-hjerte-for-seksualiteten/ Website: Seksuell atferd A resource page about normal sexual behaviour and managing problematic and harmful sexual behaviour. https://www.seksuellatferd.no/ Website: Redd Barna - Jeg er her A website focusing on Redd Barna's (Save the Children) work to combat violence and sexual abuse against children. https://www.reddbarna.no/jegerher Website: RVTS Øst Website with relevant subject areas and tools regarding children and youth sexuality. https://www.rvtsost.no/verktoy/seksualitet-hos-barn-og-ungdom Previous Next Innholdsfortegnelse

  • 5.4 Already know each other | RVTS Guide for schools

    ALREADY KNOW EACH OTHER People are typically exposed to harmful sexual behaviour by someone they know (friends, siblings, classmates, etc.), but some do inflict harmful sexual behaviour on people they do not know. Listen to a read-aloud version of the text on this page 5.4 Already know each other RVTS Mid 00:00 / 00:14 Previous Next Innholdsfortegnelse

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